I2C basics

History

I2C (inter IC) was invented by Philips Semiconductor (now named NXP). It is typically used to attach low-speed peripherals to processors/micro-controllers.

Since 2006, no licensing fees are required to implement I2C protocol, but fees are still required to obtain I2C addresses, allocated by NXP.

I2C bus (SDA, SCL)

  • bidirectional
    • both outputting and inputting signals on the wire are possible (it can sense the voltage level of the wire).
  • open-drain, or open-collector
    • masters and slaves can only drive these lines low, or leave them open;
    • each line requires a pull-up resistor on it, to pull the line up to VCC, if no I2C device is pulling it down.

i2c_interface

more on pull-up resistor:

  • without a pull-up resistor, he device is not able to generate the I2C start condition.
    • sometimes, there is no external pull-up, but an internal pull-up can be enabled.
    • lack of pull-up will not damage either IC, as PNP transistor is being used.
  • resistor selection: start with 4.7K, and adjust down if necessary.
    • note: a small resistor might be too weak for I2C pull up (it might still work, depending on the I2 speed, etc).

I2C bus transaction

  • Usually, the slaves are in the idle condition, monitoring the SDA and SCLK lines for the start condition and the correct transmitted address.
  • the clock signal is always generated by the current bus master.
  • start condition: a high to low transition on SDA while SCL remains high, then pulls the SCL low.
  • Following the start condition, the address bits are transferred from MSB down to LSB.
    • A logic 0 on the LSB of the first byte means a “write”; a logic 1 means a “read”.
    • The  first 8 clock cycles are used for slave address, then the 9th is for slave ACK.
    • The slave, if it recognizes its address, it responds by pulling the data line low during the ninth clock pulse – this is known as an acknowledge bit.
  • A data transfer is terminated by a stop condition: a low to high transition on SDA, while SCL is high.

data-transfer

example #1: (the slave 0x70 doesn’t respond)

# irecv -n/dev/i2c0 -a0x70 -l1  //  0111 0000 –> 1110 0001 DCMD_I2C_SENDRECV, send STOP.

i2c0_SCLi2c0_SDA

example #2 (the slave 0x6c works well)

# irecv -n/dev/i2c4 -a0x6c -l1   // 0110 1100 –> 1101 1001   DCMD_I2C_SENDRECV, send STOP, too.

Data recvd: 15h  // 0001 0101

i2c4_SCLi2c4_SDA

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